The United Federation of Planets, abreviated UFP, and also known as simply the Federation, was a major political power in the galaxy. It was an interstellar federal republic, comprised of many planetary governments unified under a central government, which was based on the principles of liberty, equality and self-betterment. The Federation's motto was to "seek out new life".
The Federation was founded in San Francisco on Earth in 2161. In 2154, a temporary alliance was made to search for a Romulan drone-ship that was attacking local vessels. It was this Babel Crisis that brought together the four species that would be the Federation's founders: Humans, Vulcans, Andorians and Tellarites. A year following the crisis, they created the precursor to the Federation, called the Coalition of Planets. Other species soon joined them: the Denobulans, the Rigelians, the Coridanites, and several others. Over the course of six years, the relations between the members of the Coalition became stronger, until, finally, the Coalition became the Federation in 2161.
Although the Federation's main interests were peace, surrounding it were other, more aggressive powers like the Romulan and Klingon Empires. As it grew through the admittance of more and more worlds, it eventually came into conflict with these powers. By the 23rd century, its main adversary had become the Klingon Empire, with war briefly erupting between them in 2267, with the war being halted by the Organians shortly after beginning. The Khitomer Conference of 2293, however, was a substantial turning point in the relations of the Klingons and Federation. This conference saw the signing of the Khitomer Accords, ending all hostility between them.
In 2365, however, everything changed when the Federation happened upon its single worst enemy, the Borg. They invaded the Federation's space twice in less than a decade, proving themselves to be one of the most powerful forces in the galaxy. Unlike anything the Federation had ever encountered, the Borg showed that in the vast reaches of the galaxy, there were threats beyond imagination.